Uttarakhand History - Uttarakhand Imporant Information


about Uttarakhand state

Uttarakhand was formed on 9 November 2000 as the twenty-seventh state of India after several years of long struggles.

From 2000 to 2006 it was known as Uttaranchal but there was anger among the people about this name. It was renamed Uttarakhand in January 2007, honoring public sentiments. The state is bordered by Tibet in the north and Nepal in the east, Himachal Pradesh in the west and Uttar Pradesh in the south..

It was under Uttar Pradesh before it became a separate state. This region is mentioned as Uttarakhand in traditional Hindu texts and ancient literature. Uttarakhand in Hindi and Sanskrit means northern region or part. There are several important pilgrimage centers of the Vedic culture located on the banks of Gangotri and Yamunotri and its shores, respectively, the origin of the largest rivers of India, Ganga and Yamuna. .

Dehradun, being the capital of Uttarakhand, is the largest city of this state. The state agitators demanded that Uttarakhand is a hilly state and hence its capital should be in Pahad. Due to this, given the geographical location of the town named Garsain, it has been proposed as the future capital but due to controversies and lack of resources, Dehradun still remains the temporary capital.

The High Court of the state is in Nainital. There are also large dam projects in Uttarakhand which have been criticized many times throughout the country, of which the Tehri dam project is the main one. The project was conceived in 1953 and finally completed in 2007. There was a Chipko movement to save trees in Uttarakhand, which brought an eco-friendly image of the region to the world.

Mythological and historical recognition of the state

Kumaon- In mythological texts, the Kurmanchal region was popularly known as Manaskhand. The texts describe Siddha Gandharva, Yaksha, Kinnar castes in the northern Himalayas and Kubera, the king of this world. The capital of Kubera is said to be Alkapuri (above Badrinath).

The names Kurmanchal and Kumaon came into vogue during the reign of Chand kings. The rule of Chand kings on Kurmanchal started after Katyuris and it continued till 1790. In 1790, the Gorkha army of Nepal invaded Kumaon and subjugated Kumaon.

The Gurkhas ruled here till 1815. After being defeated by the British in 1815, the Gorkha army went back to Nepal but the British gave the rule of Kumaon to the East India Company by not giving it to the Chand kings.

Garhwal- According to historians, the king of Panwar dynasty established these unified Garhwal kingdom under his control and made Srinagar his capital. The name Garhwal of Kedar Khand came into vogue only then. In 1803, the Gorkha army of Nepal invaded and subdued the Garhwal kingdom.

Maharaja Garhwal enlisted the help of the British to liberate the kingdom from the suzerainty of the Gorkha army of Nepal. The British defeated the Gorkha army near Dehradun in 1815.

The British gave Garhwal the east part of Alaknanda-Mandakini to the East India Company, accusing them of not paying the amount of war expenses. Returned only the territory of Tehri district (including present-day Uttarkashi) to the Maharaja of Garhwal

The then Maharaja Sudarshan Shah made Tehri his capital on 28 December 1815. After some years his successor Maharaja Narendra established a second capital named Narendranagar at a place called Odathali.

Tehri was merged with the Indian Republic in August 1949 and Tehri was declared a district in the then United Provinces (U.P.). Three marginal districts of Uttarkashi, Chamoli and Pithoragarh were formed in 1960 with a view to developing border areas in the backdrop of the 1962 Indo-China war.

As a result of the reorganization of Uttar Pradesh as a new state (Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000), Uttarakhand was established on 9 November 2000. Hence this day is celebrated as the Foundation Day in Uttarakhand.

Rivers have great importance in the culture of Uttarakhand. The rivers here are the major resource for irrigation and hydro power generation. Many religious and cultural centers are established on their banks. The origin of the holy river Ganges of Hindus are the southern ranges of the main Himalayas. The Ganges originates from the Alaknanda Bhagirathi rivers. The tributaries of Alaknanda are Dhauli, Vishnu Ganga and Mandakini.

Ganga River, 25 km from Gaumukh as Bhagirathi. Originates from the big gangotri glacier. Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Dev Prayag confluence, after which it is known as Ganga. The river Yamuna originates from the western Yamanotri glacier of Bandarpunch.

Hons, kernels and asanas are the main tributaries in this river. The origin of the Ram Ganga is found in the Makcha Chung glacier northwest of Taklakot. The Song River flows into the southeastern part of Dehradun and joins the Ganges River near Virbhadra. Apart from these, Kali, Ramganga, Kosi, Gomti, Tons, Dhauli Ganga, Gauriganga, Pinder Nayar (East) Pinder Nayar (West) are the major rivers in the state.

Districts, population and tourist places of Uttarakhand

Almora, Udham Singh Nagar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Uttarkashi, Chamoli Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Dehradun, Pauri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Haridwar.

According to the 2011 census, Uttarakhand has a population of 1, 01, 16, 752. Districts of the plains have higher population density than the hilly districts. The original inhabitants of Uttarakhand are called Kumaoni or Garhwali, who live in two divisions of the state, Kumaon and Garhwal. Another category is Gujjars, a type of shepherd and live in the southwestern Terai region.

Two dialects of Middle Hill are spoken in Kumaoni and Garhwali, Kumaon and Garhwal respectively. Jaunsari and Bhotia are two other dialects spoken by the tribe communities in the west and north respectively. But Hindi is spoken and understood all over the state and the urban population mostly speaks Hindi.

Major Tourist Places in Uttarakhand

Kedarnath, Nainital, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Badrinath, Rishikesh, Hemkund Sahib, Nanakmatta, Valley of Flowers, Mussoorie, Dehradun, Haridwar, Auli, Chakrata, Ranikhet, Bageshwar, Bhimtal, Kausani, Lansdowne